Well, readers, welcome back to the third installment of the Linux commands. Previously, we have ended our discussion on the NMAP syntax which is required to learn by everyone. And, today we will take our Linux command series ahead and will study the NMAP common command reference required to scan networks and hosts. So, let’s get started.
Well, if you have learned different programming languages, then after one time you start to feel confused between different syntax codes. You might miss the syntax of one programming language with another and increase your workload. However, remembering the Linux commands might be easy, but when so many different things are going in your mind, then remembering Linux commands can become a tiresome job.
Github – A Home of Developers
Github is the perfect friendly platform where you can share your new incentive codes with your friends, colleagues, classmates. And, if you want complete stranger can appreciate your cool. For the interrupted experience of this sharing, Github provides the environment where with the help of different features and task control panels this task is achieved.
Getting your hands dirty :: Understanding Linux is very essential, as almost 79% of total servers in the world reply on Linux that’s make it the most used server operating system in the world .There is whole list of reasons why we use it , we are not gonna discuss that but instead let’s understand what basic set of skills do we need to become a Linux power user with some simple examples .
Becoming expert in any field requires combination of two things Skill set + consistency , We can surely help you with the skill set you need but consistency depends upon you, but with my own experience with Linux i can say that anyone can become a power user of Linux with the following skills.
Become Power user of shell
Shell is “the” tool by which a Linux user interacts with it ,issue command , run programs and pretty much every task you can think of as a operating system user. Any efficient Linux user is also a efficient user of Shell . Most popular shell currently is Bash shell which stands for ‘Bourne- Again Shell’ , there are also other shell options present like cshell ,zshell ,kornshell tcshell etc.Making yourself comfortable with bash is a bonus as mac os also uses Bash under the hood .By not making things more complicated ,let’s discuss what are the essential things which are needed to be learned,
- Understanding Command syntax:
- <command> -<characterflag> or –<string flag> <operand or another command via pipeline>
example :- $ ls -al
- <command> -<characterflag> or –<string flag> <operand or another command via pipeline>
- Dynamic command completion and recalling command using history
- Connecting commands via pipeline
- running commands in background
- Using shell variables
If possible apply some of the most used Commands , which are,
- ls :List files and directories in current directory
- cd :Used for jumping between directories
- pwd :Displays present working directory
- mkdir : Can be used to create directory
- cp :copy files
- mv :move files
- rm: to remove files and directories
These are some very basic set of commands which you will be using as daily user.
Moving in File system
Moving in file system using command line is a must have skill as in most scenarios you will not be having any GUI to work with so making your self comfortable with it is very important.So what does it even mean moving in File system ,
- Locating files with help of Locate or Find command.
- Using regex to find files.
- changing permissions of files using chmod.
- Moving , copying, removing files using mv,cp,rm.
Command Line Editing
Editing files in Linux is not same as that of any other operating system , the os comes with a pre-installed command line editor called Vim (the number of editor comes pre-installed can change from distribution to distribution).So we will focus on Vim only, there are some basic set of operation applied on files ,
- Adding or appending text
- Deleting text
- renaming text
the Vim editor works in two modes a command mode and a text mode , switching between two commands is piece of cake just press “esc” .some basic set of commands are ,
- :w – for writing to the file .
- :q – to quit
- :u –undo the changes.
These commands can also be used in combined mode like :wq , if you have noticed all the commands are preceded by a “:” and that’s is Vim’s convention.
Task management is a very essential skill in dealing with not only Linux but with any other operating system , process management in Linux can be controlled by two using commands “ps” ,”top“. We are not getting into very complicated details of process management but quite simpler one’s which includes,
- Listing of processes
- starting a process both background and foreground
- terminating processes
- changing priority of processes.
To List process under current user just type ps –aux where ps is command itself and all the letters after single “-” are all character flags.
Killing a process is also quite easy just type kill <process id>.
All the skills specified above are just the first step of learning Linux and We hope you are feeling much more confident about your knowledge about Linux . Hope you enjoyed reading it.
“That’s what makes Linux so good: you put in something, and that effort multiplies. It’s a positive feedback cycle.” – Linus Torvalds
This article cover all the basics of Redhat package manager and debian package manager .This article is comprised of two sections
- Working with Red hat packge manager
- Working with Debian package manager
Note : there are many other package manager’s available in market today some are distribution specific and other are general covering all PM’s is beyond the scope of this article ,this is the reason why we are including the two most popular PM’s in the world.For this article please follow FEDORA ,RHEl,SUSE,CENTOS.
RED-HAT PACKAGE MANAGER:
Definition: This was originally named Red-hat package manager but later recursively renamed RPM.This is preferred package manager format in SUSE,RHEL,FEDORA,CENTOS etc.The RPM works or can be initiated in using ‘rpm’ command.
An RPM package is a consolidation of files needed to provide a application such as image viewer ,library themes.Inside RPM there are configuration files , commands,directory structure,meta data that makes up the software.
Working with rpm
Before you even look inside rpm any package you can tell much about it just by looking inside it,type the following command inside your Linux terminal:
# rpm -q firefox
from this you can infer that the basename of package is ‘firefox’ .The release number is 25.7 .The Version number is 1 .This package is compatible with RHEL 7 as it says ‘el7_0’ and is compiled for x86_64 architecture.
For more detailed inquiry of a rpm package you can type:
# rpm -qi <package name>
when you install any red-hat based distribution such as fedora or centos many rpm’s comes preinstalled but if you have a rpm package and want to install then just type:
# rpm -i <package name>
For checking the dependencies a rpm package has :
# rpm -qR <package name>
For Upgrade rpm to a newer version:
# rpm -Uvh <package name>
DEBIAN PACKAGE MANAGER:
Definition:The debian GNU/Linux project created .deb packaging,which is used by debian and other distribution based on debian(Ubuntu,Mint,KNOPIX,etc). Using tools such as apt-get or dpkg ,Linux user could install remove or upgrade debian packages.
Understanding Deb Package
The debian package contains many files such as configuration files ,meta data related to that package or other in form of an archive file.The files can be commands,metadata which includes dependencies ,licensing ,package sizes etc.
Working with Debian
Some of tools for managing debian package are:
- aptitude – The aptitude command is a package installation tool that provides a screen-oriented menu that runs in the shell.After you run the commands ,use arrow keys for highlighting the selection you want and then press enter.
- apt(Advance package tool)* – There is a set of apt commands that you can use to manage package installation
- apt-get update :- get the latest package versions
- apt-get search <keyword>:- search the package with respective keyword
- apt-get install <package name>:-Install the package with specified package name.
- apt-get upgrade <packege name>:- Upgrade the package name
Working efficiently with packages is a must have skill when trying to learn linux or becoming system admin, so learn this essential skill and become a System admin.
History of Linux
Before getting into any comparison let’s first have a look on how everything got evolved,Many people think that Linus torvalds created linux which is true but not the whole truth Linus torvalds has designed its kernel not the whole operating system ,the first version of kernel is 1991 but the utilities portion of the operating system was already existed at that time which was designed by Gnu founder Richard stallman and its team, and they called it the GNU Operating system which was later combined with Linus’s created kernel.So when you are saying only linux you are referring to its kernel but when you say Linux distribution then you are referring to a complete operating system but as of general trend for sake of this article we will also refer linux as a complete operating system rather than kernel only.
What makes it different?
if you are new to linux chances are you are user of either Microsoft’s windows or apple’s Mac platform ,Although mac uses bsd(berkeley software distribution) at its root but both mac and windows considered as proprietary operating system ,what’s that mean is:-
- you cannot access that code of the operating system used to create it
- You are not allowed to change the operating system at its most basic level to make it in a manner you like or for your own use or dissable the things you don’t like
- If the operating system have bugs you cannot fix it or you can neither explore security vulnerablities at its code level neither you are allowed to read bug reports
- you cannot make your software for that operating system if its makers does not allow it
The points mentioned above might be useful for some categories users not for all but if you are software developer then you will embrace this fact that points mentioned above are must have . if you might thinking that even if i can change the code of my operating system then whats a big deal ? you are wrong let me give a example ,if you are in 21st century then you must have heard about Google’s mobile operating system Android or the cloud systems that all tech giant’s uses runs on linux at its core with different application layers.So it is worth having power to design or to customize a operating system according to your own needs .
Now lets talk about things at which linux take over its competitors:-
- Due to the fact that linux is opensource ,that means you need not to pay for any new version at any time
- Linux is maintained by amazing community of millions of developers around the globe this has itself many benefits.
- If a security vulnerability is found it is pached much quickly than other operating systems as million of people are maintaining it.
- For server side purposes the linux has its command line version to make things a little lighter on hadrware.
I am Sure you are excited to test your first Linux distribution So, go ahead and download it.
Features loaded free Linux apps
In the ever-growing popularity of open source operating system Linux, it’s amazing free apps plays a vital role. There are numerous reasons present that motivate you to use Linux, but the major reason would be the features loaded and almost free apps of the Linux distributions.
Linux app market has catered the needs of all their users and launched plenty of functional apps according to the user’s preference. Today every Linux user has its own long list of the favorite apps. So, if you haven’t yet tried cool Linux apps. Then, we have few suggestions for you and readers don’t ignore these Linux apps as they are one of their own kind.
If you are a programmer, then this integrated development environment is perfect for you. Eclipse works on both OS X and Windows, which makes it highly feasible for the developers. Moreover, developers can customize it according to their skills and knowledge, thanks to Java. The app supports all the latest programming languages such as Python, C++, Ruby, Scala, and Clojure.
This is a very simple and a light weighted text editor app designed mainly for HTML and CSS scripting. The app got all the features that are essential for the web text editor. Mainly, the live preview feature of the app is very nice and helpful for the developers to the great extent. Apart from this Brackets has numerous other features, like automatic indentation, code folding, themes and countless plugins.
Pidgin is all time favorite messaging app, this app works both directly on your Linux PC and via third-party sources also. The app works via different chat portals also, like Gtalk, IRC, Yahoo, ICQ, XMPP, and Facebook. Messaging app has few interesting features also including custom emoticons, different types of notifications, and buddy grouping and filtering.
This is a relatively new app but has the great advantage of working across platforms. It can operate on iOS, Android and Windows platforms. The security of Telegram is very advance and all the messages are encrypted from end to end. So, privacy and cross-platform features of Telegram app make it highly popular in the short duration of time.
Firefox is the default Linux web browser, so it’s highly recommended. The app comes with plenty of cool extensions that user can change according to their needs. Moreover, most of the users are already familiar with the Firefox, so it is easy to operate the app.
The security of your system is the very crucial point, so for that, you required strong security system. And, Tor is that perfect security tool. It can provide you browser and communication tools that block trackers and enable anonymized surfing.
Krita is an ultimate tool for the digital graphic designers and illustrators. It provides amazing tools that can customize your workflow and keeps you focused on your work. One can design patterns and textures, modify and import brushes, apply filters and effects, manage layers, and achieve perfect symmetry with in-built drawing aids.
Do you know Linux?
Linux or some might recognize as GNU, is a super cool operating system. The system is inspired by the UNIX and has gained a huge fan following for itself. The giant fans of Linux include Google, Facebook, Twitter, Yahoo, Amazon, and numerous other big names.